Some Varieties of Information
Several different kinds of measures of information are distinguished from each other. The differences between them show that our pretheoretical concept of information is multiply ambiguous. Attempts to think of the scientific enterprise in terms of information maximization lead to several legitimately different rules of scientific decision-making, depending on which kind of information one is interested in. The contrast between high information and high probability postulated by some philosophers is spurious for the same reason. It is even possible to define interesting measures of information such that nontrivial deductive reasoning can increase information so defined.