In The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Relativism. New York: pp. 349-357 (2019)

Eli Hirsch
Brandeis University
Jared Warren
Stanford University
Quantifier variance is a well-known view in contemporary metaontology, but it remains very widely misunderstood by critics. Here we briefly and clearly explain the metasemantics of quantifier variance and distinguish between modest and strong forms of variance (Section I), explain some key applications (Section II), clear up some misunderstandings and address objections (Section III), and point the way toward future directions of quantifier-variance-related research (Section IV).
Keywords Quantifier Variance  Metaontology  Charity  Quantifiers
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On the Plurality of Worlds.David Lewis - 1986 - Wiley-Blackwell.
Demonstratives: An Essay on the Semantics, Logic, Metaphysics and Epistemology of Demonstratives and Other Indexicals.David Kaplan - 1989 - In Joseph Almog, John Perry & Howard Wettstein (eds.), Themes From Kaplan. Oxford University Press. pp. 481-563.
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The Question of Realism.Kit Fine - 2001 - Philosophers' Imprint 1:1-30.

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