Journal of Business Ethics 53 (4):333-352 (2004)

Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to explore two questions:(1) Is symmetrical communication in public relations practice inherently ethical?(2) Does symmetrical communication contribute to public relations effectiveness and organizational effectiveness? Three surveys are undertaken to test seven research hypotheses for the purpose of cross-validating research findings. The results suggest that symmetrical communication is inherently ethical. Moreover, symmetrical communication indeed contributes to several performance measures, which include positive market performance, overall organizational effectiveness, conflict resolution, crisis management, favorable organizational reputation, and positive media exposure, with the last two measures only partially supported.
Keywords symmetrical communication  public relations  ethical communication  public relations effectiveness  organizational effectiveness
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DOI 10.1023/B:BUSI.0000043494.17425.c6
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References found in this work BETA

Applying Ethical Theory to Public Relations.Thomas H. Bivins - 1987 - Journal of Business Ethics 6 (3):195 - 200.
A New Approach to Multinational Social Responsibility.Jacob Naor - 1982 - Journal of Business Ethics 1 (3):219 - 225.

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Citations of this work BETA

Public Relations and Rawls: An Ill-Fitting Veil to Wear.Chris Roberts - 2012 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 27 (3):163-176.
The Communication Contract and Its Ten Ground Clauses.Birgitta Dresp-Langley - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 87 (3):415-436.
Toward an Ethical Model of Effective Crisis Communication.Young Kim - 2015 - Business and Society Review 120 (1):57-81.

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