Notas De Uma Crítica Habermasiana Ao Naturalismo Cientificista

Ethica: Cadernos Acadêmicos 18 (2):85-105 (2011)

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Abstract
Parece que seria conseqüente afirmar que os progressos biogenéticos, daspesquisas sobre o cérebro e da robótica conduzem a um reducionismodas vivências . Muitas dessas pesquisas têm conduzido aassertivas de caráter ontológico empírico-materialistas. Tal tendência podeser caracterizada como naturalismo cientificista. Porém, se é correta ainterpretação dos processos socioculturais como aprendizagens coletivas,com efeitos normativos, fazendo avançar nossa evolução cultural pormeio de ações orientadas por regras, será possível erguer uma crítica a talnaturalismo cientificista? Estará no centro dessa crítica a noção de processosde aprendizagem complementares, intersubjetivos, normativos, formadoresda autodeterminação dos falantes que participam de comunidades de fala?Sendo assim, essa abordagem da ética do discurso provoca uma atitude deprecaução relativa à atitude objetivista e instrumentalista – que poderiaorientar certas pesquisas genéticas. Um elemento complementar à crítica éo da inclusão de todos os envolvidos nos processos de deliberação.This essay examines the claim according to which biogenetic progress fromresearch performed on the brain and from robotics leads to a reductionismof the living . Much of this research has led to assertions thatare of an ontological, empirical and materialist nature. Such a tendencymay be characterized as scientific naturalism. Yet if it is correct to interpretsociocultural processes as collective learning, with normative effects thatmove our cultural evolution forward by means of rule-oriented actions, is itbe possible to form a critique against scientific naturalism? At the heart ofthis critique, there would lie the notion that processes of self-determinationcharacterize the speakers who participate in the discourse community. Thisapproach of discourse ethics prompts a precautionary attitude with respect tothe objectivist and instrumentalist attitudes, which seemingly guide a certainkind of genetic research. What the critique seeks is a complementary element,i.e., inclusion of all those who are involved in the deliberative process
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