Journal of Medical Ethics 30 (3):293-298 (2004)
AbstractObjectives: To determine the effects of risk and payment on subjects’ willingness to participate, and to examine how payment influences subjects’ potential behaviours and risk evaluations.Methods: A 3 × 3 , between subjects, completely randomised factorial design was used. Students enrolled at one of five US pharmacy schools read a recruitment notice and informed consent form for a hypothetical study, and completed a questionnaire. Risk level was manipulated using recruitment notices and informed consent documents from hypothetical biomedical research projects. Payment levels were determined using the payment models evaluated by Dickert and Grady as a guide. Five dependent variables were assessed in the questionnaire: willingness to participate, willingness to participate with no payment, propensity to neglect to tell about restricted activities, propensity to neglect to tell about negative effects, and risk rating.Results: Monetary payment had positive effects on respondents’ willingness to participate in research, regardless of the level of risk. However, higher monetary payments did not appear to blind respondents to the risks of a study. Payment had some influence on respondents’ potential behaviours regarding concealing information about restricted activities. However, payment did not appear to have a significant effect on respondents’ propensity to neglect to tell researchers about negative effects.Conclusions: Monetary payments appear to do what they are intended to do: make subjects more willing to participate in research. Concerns about payments blinding subjects to risks could not be substantiated in the present study. However, the findings do raise other concerns—notably the potential for payments to diminish the integrity of a study’s findings. Future research is critical to make sound decisions about the payment of research subjects
Similar books and articles
Parent–Child Roles in Decision Making About Medical Research.Victoria A. Miller, William W. Reynolds & Robert M. Nelson - 2008 - Ethics and Behavior 18 (2-3):161 – 181.
On the Application of J.M. Keynes's Approach to Decision Making.Michael E. Brady - 1994 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 8 (2):99 – 112.
A Virtue Ethical Account of Making Decisions About Risk.N. Athanassoulis & A. Ross - 2010 - Journal of Risk Research 13 (2):217.
An Empirical Investigation of the Influence of Selected Personal, Organizational and Moral Intensity Factors on Ethical Decision Making.Joseph G. P. Paolillo & Scott J. Vitell - 2002 - Journal of Business Ethics 35 (1):65 - 74.
Misconceptions About Coercion and Undue Influence: Reflections on the Views of Irb Members.Emily Largent, Christine Grady, Franklin G. Miller & Alan Wertheimer - 2013 - Bioethics 27 (9):500-507.
The Research Ethics Review Process and Ethics Review Narratives.Maureen H. Fitzgerald, Paul A. Phillips & Elisa Yule - 2006 - Ethics and Behavior 16 (4):377 – 395.
The Effect of Relationships on Decision-Making Processes of Women in Harare, Zimbabwe.Nicole Mamotte, Douglas Richard Wassenaar & Aceme Nyika - 2009 - Ethics and Behavior 19 (3):184-200.
Decision-Making and Motivation to Participate in Biomedical Research in Southwest Nigeria.Pauline E. Osamor & Nancy Kass - 2012 - Developing World Bioethics 12 (2):87-95.
Ethical Standards, Attitudes Toward Risk, and Intentional Noncompliance: An Experimental Investigation. [REVIEW]Dipankar Ghosh & Terry L. Crain - 1995 - Journal of Business Ethics 14 (5):353 - 365.
Emotion and Ethical Decision-Making in Organizations.Alice Gaudine & Linda Thorne - 2001 - Journal of Business Ethics 31 (2):175 - 187.
Trust, Risk, and Shareholder Decision Making: An Investor Perspective on Corporate Governance.Ann K. Buchholtz - 2001 - Business Ethics Quarterly 11 (1):177-193.
Decision-Making by Adolescents and Parents of Children with Cancer Regarding Health Research Participation.Kate Read, Conrad Vincent Fernandez, Jun Gao, Caron Strahlendorf, Albert Moghrabi, Rebecca Davis Pentz, Raymond Carlton Barfield, Justin Nathaniel Baker, Darcy Santor, Charles Weijer & Eric Kodish - unknown
Ethical Decision Making: Special or No Different? [REVIEW]Dawn R. Elm & Tara J. Radin - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 107 (3):313-329.
Ethical Decision Making: The Effects of Escalating Commitment. [REVIEW]Marc D. Street, Chris Robertson & Scott W. Geiger - 1997 - Journal of Business Ethics 16 (11):1153-1161.
Added to PP
Historical graph of downloads
Citations of this work
How Payment For Research Participation Can Be Coercive.Joseph Millum & Michael Garnett - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (9):21-31.
Payment in Challenge Studies: Ethics, Attitudes and a New Payment for Risk Model.Olivia Grimwade, Julian Savulescu, Alberto Giubilini, Justin Oakley, Joshua Osowicki, Andrew J. Pollard & Anne-Marie Nussberger - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (12):815-826.
Money, Coercion, and Undue Inducement: Attitudes About Payments to Research Participants.E. A. Largent, C. Grady, F. G. Miller & A. Wertheimer - 2012 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 34 (1):1-8.
Benefits to Research Subjects in International Trials: Do They Reduce Exploitation or Increase Undue Inducement?Angela Ballantyne - 2008 - Developing World Bioethics 8 (3):178-191.
Forms of Benefit Sharing in Global Health Research Undertaken in Resource Poor Settings: A Qualitative Study of Stakeholders' Views in Kenya.Geoffrey Lairumbi, Michael Parker, Raymond Fitzpatrick & Michael English - 2012 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 7:7.
References found in this work
The Ethics of Biomedical Research: An International Perspective.Baruch A. Brody - 1998 - Oxford University Press.
Money for Research Participation: Does It Jeopardize Informed Consent?Christine Grady - 2001 - American Journal of Bioethics 1 (2):40 – 44.
On Paying Money to Research Subjects: 'Due' and 'Undue' Inducements.R. Macklin - 1981 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 3 (5):1-6.
Paying Research Subjects: Participants' Perspectives.M. L. Russell - 2000 - Journal of Medical Ethics 26 (2):126-130.