Journal of Medical Ethics 30 (3):293-298 (2004)

Objectives: To determine the effects of risk and payment on subjects’ willingness to participate, and to examine how payment influences subjects’ potential behaviours and risk evaluations.Methods: A 3 × 3 , between subjects, completely randomised factorial design was used. Students enrolled at one of five US pharmacy schools read a recruitment notice and informed consent form for a hypothetical study, and completed a questionnaire. Risk level was manipulated using recruitment notices and informed consent documents from hypothetical biomedical research projects. Payment levels were determined using the payment models evaluated by Dickert and Grady as a guide. Five dependent variables were assessed in the questionnaire: willingness to participate, willingness to participate with no payment, propensity to neglect to tell about restricted activities, propensity to neglect to tell about negative effects, and risk rating.Results: Monetary payment had positive effects on respondents’ willingness to participate in research, regardless of the level of risk. However, higher monetary payments did not appear to blind respondents to the risks of a study. Payment had some influence on respondents’ potential behaviours regarding concealing information about restricted activities. However, payment did not appear to have a significant effect on respondents’ propensity to neglect to tell researchers about negative effects.Conclusions: Monetary payments appear to do what they are intended to do: make subjects more willing to participate in research. Concerns about payments blinding subjects to risks could not be substantiated in the present study. However, the findings do raise other concerns—notably the potential for payments to diminish the integrity of a study’s findings. Future research is critical to make sound decisions about the payment of research subjects
Keywords No keywords specified (fix it)
Categories (categorize this paper)
DOI 10.1136/jme.2002.001594
Edit this record
Mark as duplicate
Export citation
Find it on Scholar
Request removal from index
Revision history

Download options

PhilArchive copy

Upload a copy of this paper     Check publisher's policy     Papers currently archived: 64,107
Through your library

References found in this work BETA

Paying Research Subjects: Participants' Perspectives.M. L. Russell - 2000 - Journal of Medical Ethics 26 (2):126-130.

View all 6 references / Add more references

Citations of this work BETA

How Payment For Research Participation Can Be Coercive.Joseph Millum & Michael Garnett - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (9):21-31.

View all 38 citations / Add more citations

Similar books and articles

On the Application of J.M. Keynes's Approach to Decision Making.Michael E. Brady - 1994 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 8 (2):99 – 112.
Emotion and Ethical Decision-Making in Organizations.Alice Gaudine & Linda Thorne - 2001 - Journal of Business Ethics 31 (2):175 - 187.
Ethical Decision Making: Special or No Different? [REVIEW]Dawn R. Elm & Tara J. Radin - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 107 (3):313-329.


Added to PP index

Total views
9 ( #927,828 of 2,454,584 )

Recent downloads (6 months)
1 ( #449,377 of 2,454,584 )

How can I increase my downloads?


My notes