What is altruism?

Abstract
Altruism is generally understood to be behavior that benefits others at a personal cost to the behaving individual. However, within evolutionary biology, different authors have interpreted the concept of altruism differently, leading to dissimilar predictions about the evolution of altruistic behavior. Generally, different interpretations diverge on which party receives the benefit from altruism and on how the cost of altruism is assessed. Using a simple trait-group framework, we delineate the assumptions underlying different interpretations and show how they relate to one another. We feel that a thorough examination of the connections between interpretations not only reveals why different authors have arrived at disparate conclusions about altruism, but also illuminates the conditions that are likely to favor the evolution of altruism.
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From Quorum to Cooperation: Lessons From Bacterial Sociality for Evolutionary Theory.Pamela Lyon - 2007 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 38 (4):820-833.
Social Evolution and Strategic Thinking.Johannes Martens - 2011 - Biology and Philosophy 26 (5):697-715.

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