Illusory models of peano arithmetic

Journal of Symbolic Logic 81 (3):1163-1175 (2016)
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By using a provability predicate of PA, we define ThmPA(M) as the set of theorems of PA in a modelMof PA. We say a modelMof PA is (1) illusory if ThmPA(M) ⊈ ThmPA(ℕ), (2) heterodox if ThmPA(M) ⊈ TA, (3) sane ifM⊨ ConPA, and insane if it is not sane, (4) maximally sane if it is sane and ThmPA(M) ⊆ ThmPA(N) implies ThmPA(M) = ThmPA(N) for every sane modelNof PA. We firstly show thatMis heterodox if and only if it is illusory, and that ThmPA(M) ∩ TA ≠ ThmPA(ℕ) for any illusory modelM. Then we show that there exists a maximally sane model, every maximally sane model satisfies ¬ConPA+ConPA, and there exists a sane model of ¬ConPA+ConPAwhich is not maximally sane. We define that an insane model is (5) illusory by nature if its every initial segment being a nonstandard model of PA is illusory, and (6) going insane suddenly if its every initial segment being a sane model of PA is not illusory. We show that there exists a model of PA which is illusory by nature, and we prove the existence of a model of PA which is going insane suddenly.



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Fifty years of self-reference in arithmetic.C. Smoryński - 1981 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 22 (4):357-374.
Injecting inconsistencies into models of pa.Robert M. Solovay - 1989 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 44 (1-2):101-132.
Rosser sentences.D. Guaspari - 1979 - Annals of Mathematical Logic 16 (1):81.

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