Republic. I summarised book I, and you read the challenge issued at the beginning of book II to Socrates by Glaucon and Adeimantus. They wanted Socrates to show that it is sensible to be just, not in terms of the material benefits of having a good reputation, but in terms of the effects of being just on the soul of the just person. To deal with this challenge, Socrates begins to construct an imaginary city, in the hope of being able to understand the point of justice in a city, and argue from there to the point of justice for an individual. Socrates goes on Republic 369 ff to sketch out the founding of a new city (the idea of deliberately founding a city was familiar -- many cities had been founded as colonies). 'Society originates... because the individual is not self-sufficient, but has many needs which he can't supply himself'. Socrates suggests division of labour, specialisation: The things needed are 'more easily produced when a man specializes appropriatedly on a single job for which he is naturally fitted'. The city must therefore include specialist farmers, builders, weavers, toolmakers, merchants, etc. But these trades would support only a very basic society. As civilization progresses beyond the mere necessities specialists in other arts will be added: sculptors, playwrights, confectioners, doctors. As wealth grows this city and the neighboring cities may come to war, and military specialists will also be needed.
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