Journal of the History of Biology 42 (2):289-324 (2009)
AbstractIn Landscapes and Labscapes Robert Kohler emphasized the separation between laboratory and field cultures and the creation of new "hybrid" or mixed practices as field sciences matured in the early twentieth century. This article explores related changes in laboratory practices, especially novel designs for the analysis of organism-environment relations in the mid-twentieth century. American ecologist Victor Shelford argued in 1929 that technological improvements and indoor climate control should be applied to ecological laboratories, but his recommendations were too ambitious for the time. In the postwar period Frits W. Went, plant physiologist at the California Institute of Technology, created a new high-tech laboratory, dubbed a "phytotron", in the hope that it would transform plant sciences by allowing for unprecedented control of environmental variables. Went's aspirations, the research conducted in his laboratory, and its impact in initiating an international movement, are considered. Went's laboratory can be seen as a "hybrid culture" evolving in the laboratory, complementing and intersecting with some of the field practices that Kohler describes. It was also a countercultural movement against the reductionist trends of molecular biology in the 1950s and 1960s. By considering the history of the laboratory in relation to field sciences, we can explore how new funding sources and cross-disciplinary relations affected the development of field sciences, especially in the postwar period.
Similar books and articles
Frits Went’s Atomic Age Greenhouse: The Changing Labscape on the Lab-Field Border. [REVIEW]Sharon E. Kingsland - 2009 - Journal of the History of Biology 42 (2):289 - 324.
Landscapes and Labscapes: Exploring the Lab–Field Border in Biology. [REVIEW]Sharon Kingsland - 2004 - Isis 95:509-510.
Heavy Metals Contamination in Greenhouse Soils and Vegetables in Guanzhong, China.Ling Liu - 2014 - Journal of Encapsulation and Adsorption Sciences 4:80-88.
Trade and Climate Change: Environmental, Economic and Ethical Perspectives on Border Carbon Adjustments.Clara Brandi - 2013 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 16 (1):79-93.
Radiobiology in the Atomic Age: Changing Research Practices and Policies in Comparative Perspective. [REVIEW]Angela N. H. Creager & María Jesús Santesmases - 2006 - Journal of the History of Biology 39 (4):637 - 647.
Open Immigration Policies and Liberal Discomfort.Richard Nunan - 2008 - Human Rights Review 9 (4):537-541.
India and Beyond: Aspects of Literature, Meaning, Ritual and Thought: Essays in Honour of Frits Staal.Frits Staal & Dick van der Meij (eds.) - 1997 - Columbia University Press.
Higher-order vagueness and the vagueness of ‘vague’.Achille C. Varzi - 2003 - Mind 112 (446):295–298.
Spontaneous Emission from the Ground Atomic State due to Its Crossing with the Dynamic Stark Level.Olga Kocharovskaya & Y. V. Radeonychev - 1998 - Foundations of Physics 28 (4):561-584.
Territories, Boundaries and Consciousness: The Changing Geographies of the Finnish-Russian Border. By Anssi Paasi.J. Haekli - 1999 - The European Legacy 4:96-96.
'Killing is Easy': The Atomic Bomb and the Temptation of Terror.Gerard J. DeGroot - 2011 - In Hew Strachan & Sibylle Scheipers (eds.), The Changing Character of War. Oxford University Press.
How Harmful Are the Average American's Greenhouse Gas Emissions?John Nolt - 2011 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (1):3-10.
A Cold War Colonial Science: the Atomic Bombing Casualty Commission's Study of Genetic Mutations in the Children of Atomic Bomb Survivors. [REVIEW]Sharon Ghamari-Tabrizi - 1997 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 19 (3):403 - 411.
Added to PP
Historical graph of downloads
Sorry, there are not enough data points to plot this chart.
Citations of this work
Working across species down on the farm: Howard S. Liddell and the development of comparative psychopathology, c. 1923–1962.Robert G. W. Kirk & Edmund Ramsden - 2018 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 40 (1):24.
The organism strikes back: Chlorella algae and their impact on photosynthesis research, 1920s–1960s.Kärin Nickelsen - 2017 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 39 (2).
Demarcating Nature, Defining Ecology: Creating a Rationale for the Study of Nature’s “Primitive Conditions”.S. Andrew Inkpen - 2017 - Perspectives on Science 25 (3):355-392.
Labs in the Field? Rocky Mountain Biological Stations in the Early Twentieth Century.Jeremy Vetter - 2012 - Journal of the History of Biology 45 (4):587 - 611.
The instability of field experiments: building an experimental research tradition on the rocky seashores.Jean-Baptiste Grodwohl, Franco Porto & Charbel N. El-Hani - 2018 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 40 (3):45.
References found in this work
Experimentalists and naturalists in twentieth-century botany: Experimental taxonomy, 1920?1950.Joel B. Hagen - 1984 - Journal of the History of Biology 17 (2):249-270.
Landscapes and Labscapes: Exploring the Lab-Field Border in Biology.Robert E. Kohler - 2003 - Journal of the History of Biology 36 (3):599-601.
Fruits and Plains. The Horticultural Transformation of America.Philip J. Pauly - 2008 - Journal of the History of Biology 41 (4):771-773.
Ecologists and Environmental Politics: A History of Contemporary Ecology.Stephen Bocking - 1998 - Journal of the History of Biology 31 (1):145-147.
Shaping Biology: The National Science Foundation and American Biological Research, 1945-1975.Toby A. Appel - 2001 - Journal of the History of Biology 34 (2):415-418.