Kant's second thoughts on race

Philosophical Quarterly 57 (229):573–592 (2007)

Abstract

During the 1780s, as Kant was developing his universalistic moral theory, he published texts in which he defended the superiority of whites over non-whites. Whether commentators see this as evidence of inconsistent universalism or of consistent inegalitarianism, they generally assume that Kant's position on race remained stable during the 1780s and 1790s. Against this standard view, I argue on the basis of his texts that Kant radically changed his mind. I examine his 1780s race theory and his hierarchical conception of the races, and subsequently address the question of the significance of these views, especially in the light of Kant's own ethical theory. I then show that during the 1790s Kant restricts the role of the concept of race, and drops his hierarchical account of the races in favour of a more genuinely egalitarian and cosmopolitan view.

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Citations of this work

Kant and Slavery—Or Why He Never Became a Racial Egalitarian.Huaping Lu-Adler - 2022 - Critical Philosophy of Race 10 (2):263-294.
Kant and Women.Helga Varden - 2017 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 98 (4):653-694.
How to Use Someone ‘Merely as a Means’.Pauline Kleingeld - 2020 - Kantian Review 25 (3):389-414.
Black Radical Kantianism.Charles W. Mills - 2017 - Res Philosophica 95 (1):1-33.
Kant’s Racism.Lucy Allais - 2016 - Philosophical Papers 45 (1-2):1-36.

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