Journal of the History of Ideas 60 (3):505-524 (1999)

Pauline Kleingeld
University of Groningen
Cosmopolitanism is not a single encompassing idea but rather comes in at least six different varieties, which have often been conflated in previous literature. This is shown on the basis of the discussion in late eighteenth-century Germany (roughly, 1780-1800). The six varieties are: (1) moral cosmopolitanism, the view that all humans belong to a single moral community; political cosmopolitanism, which advocates (2) reform of the international political and legal order or (3) a strong notion of human rights; (4) cultural cosmopolitanism, which emphasizes the value of global cultural pluralism; (5) economic cosmopolitanism, which aims at establishing a global free market; and (6) the romantic ideal of humanity as united by faith and love. These six kinds of cosmopolitanism are not mutually exclusive, and the relationships among them are clarified.
Keywords moral cosmopolitanism  political cosmopolitanism  cultural cosmopolitanism  economic cosmopolitanism  romantic cosmopolitanism  Eighteenth-century German philosophy
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DOI 10.1353/jhi.1999.0025
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Cosmopolitanism.Pauline Kleingeld & Eric Brown - 2013 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Aesthetic Cosmopolitanism and the Challenge of the Exotic.Michael Rings - 2019 - British Journal of Aesthetics 59 (2):161-178.
Cosmopolitanism: Europe's Way Out of Crisis.Edgar Grande & Ulrich Beck - 2007 - European Journal of Social Theory 10 (1):67-85.

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