Abstract
Maxwell’s Classical Electrodynamics (MCED) suffers several inconsistencies: (1) the Lorentz force law of MCED violates Newton’s Third Law of Motion (N3LM) in case of stationary and divergent or convergent current distributions; (2) the general Jefimenko electric field solution of MCED shows two longitudinal far fields that are not waves; (3) the ratio of the electrodynamic energy-momentum of a charged sphere in uniform motion has an incorrect factor of 4/3. A consistent General Classical Electrodynamics (GCED) is presented that is based on Whittaker’s reciprocal force law that satisfies N3LM. The Whittaker force is expressed as a scalar magnetic field force, added to the Lorentz force. GCED is consistent only if it is assumed that the electric potential velocity in vacuum, ’a’, is much greater than ’c’ (a ≫ c); GCED reduces to MCED, in case we assume a = c. Longitudinal electromagnetic waves and superluminal longitudinal electric potential waves are predicted. This theory has been verified by seemingly unrelated experiments, such as the detection of superluminal Coulomb fields and longitudinal Ampère forces, and has a wide range of electrical engineering applications.
Keywords electrodynamics  superluminal  longitudinal  scalar  electromagnetic  fields  classical  waves  Maxwell  Lorentz
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