Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (2):161-209 (2006)
Why are people interested in money? Specifically, what could be the biological basis for the extraordinary incentive and reinforcing power of money, which seems to be unique to the human species? We identify two ways in which a commodity which is of no biological significance in itself can become a strong motivator. The first is if it is used as a tool, and by a metaphorical extension this is often applied to money: it is used instrumentally, in order to obtain biologically relevant incentives. Second, substances can be strong motivators because they imitate the action of natural incentives but do not produce the fitness gains for which those incentives are instinctively sought. The classic examples of this process are psychoactive drugs, but we argue that the drug concept can also be extended metaphorically to provide an account of money motivation. From a review of theoretical and empirical literature about money, we conclude that (i) there are a number of phenomena that cannot be accounted for by a pure Tool Theory of money motivation; (ii) supplementing Tool Theory with a Drug Theory enables the anomalous phenomena to be explained; and (iii) the human instincts that, according to a Drug Theory, money parasitizes include trading (derived from reciprocal altruism) and object play. (Published Online April 5 2006) Key Words: economic behaviour; evolutionary psychology; giving; incentive; money; motivation; play; reciprocal altruism.
|Keywords||economic behaviour evolutionary psychology giving incentive money motivation play reciprocal altruism|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
References found in this work BETA
No references found.
Citations of this work BETA
Love of Money and Unethical Behavior Intention: Does an Authentic Supervisor's Personal Integrity and Character (ASPIRE) Make a Difference? [REVIEW]Thomas Li-Ping Tang & Hsi Liu - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 107 (3):295-312.
Falling or Not Falling Into Temptation? Multiple Faces of Temptation, Monetary Intelligence, and Unethical Intentions Across Gender.Thomas Li-Ping Tang & Toto Sutarso - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 116 (3):529-552.
Money is Power: Monetary Intelligence—Love of Money and Temptation of Materialism Among Czech University Students. [REVIEW]Soňa Lemrová, Eva Reiterová, Renáta Fatěnová, Karel Lemr & Thomas Li-Ping Tang - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 125 (2):1-20.
Temptation, Monetary Intelligence (Love of Money), and Environmental Context on Unethical Intentions and Cheating.Jingqiu Chen, Thomas Li-Ping Tang & Ningyu Tang - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 123 (2):1-23.
Theory of Monetary Intelligence: Money Attitudes—Religious Values, Making Money, Making Ethical Decisions, and Making the Grade.Thomas Li-Ping Tang - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics.
Similar books and articles
Money Motives, Moral Philosophy, and Biological Explanations.Adrian J. Walsh - 2006 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (2):195-196.
Tools, Drugs, and Signals in the Road From Evolution to Money.Federico Sanabria - 2006 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (2):193-194.
Money, Play, and Instincts.Gordon M. Burghardt - 2006 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (2):182-183.
Money and Motivational Activation.Arthur B. Markman, Serge Blok, John Dennis, Micah Goldwater, Kyungil Kim, Jeff Laux, Lisa Narvaez & Jon Rein - 2006 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (2):190-190.
Money as Tool, Money as Resource: The Biology of Collecting Items for Their Own Sake.David A. Booth - 2006 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (2):180-181.
Money as Epistemic Structure.Sanjay Chandrasekharan - 2006 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (2):183-184.
Operant Contingencies and “Near-Money”.Simon Kemp & Randolph C. Grace - 2006 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (2):188-188.
Added to index2009-01-28
Total downloads101 ( #49,685 of 2,163,976 )
Recent downloads (6 months)12 ( #28,640 of 2,163,976 )
How can I increase my downloads?