Authors
Alex Duke
Oxford Brookes University
Manuel Brenner
Goethe University Frankfurt
Jaylin Lee
McMaster University
Abstract
We present noninvasive, quantitative in vivo measurements of methemoglobin formation and reduction in a rabbit model using broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy. Broadband DOS combines multifrequency frequency-domain photon migration with time-independent near infrared spectroscopy to quantitatively measure bulk tissue absorption and scattering spectra between 600 nm and 1,000 nm. Tissue concentrations of methemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and oxyhemoglobin were determined from absorption spectra acquired in "real time" during nitrite infusions in nine pathogen-free New Zealand White rabbits. As little as 30 nM [MetHb] changes were detected for levels of [MetHb] that ranged from 0.80 to 5.72 μM, representing 2.2 to 14.9% of the total hemoglobin content. These values agreed well with on-site ex vivo cooximetry data. The reduction of MetHb to functional hemoglobins was also carried out with intravenous injections of methylene blue. As little as 10 nM changes in [MB] were detectable at levels of up to 150 nM in tissue. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, the ability of broadband DOS to noninvasively quantify real-time changes in [MetHb] and four additional chromophore concentrations despite significant overlapping spectral features. These techniques are expected to be useful in evaluating dynamics of drug delivery and therapeutic efficacy in blood chemistry, human, and preclinical animal models. Copyright © 2006 the American Physiological Society.
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