Synthese:1-26 (forthcoming)

Jean-Nicolas Bourdon
Université du Québec à Montreal
Pierre Poirier
Université du Québec à Montréal
Diversity is an undeniable fact of nature, and there is now evidence that nature did not stop generating diversity just before “designing” the human brain :15,468–15,473., 2015). If neurodiversity is a fact of nature, what about neurodivergence? Although the terms “neurodiversity” and “neurodivergence” are sometimes used interchangeably, this is, we believe, a mistake: “neurodiversity” is a term of inclusion whereas “neurodivergence” is a term of exclusion. To make the difference clear, note that everyone can be said to be neurodiverse, but that it is almost impossible for everyone to be neurodivergent. Neurodivergence is, we claim here, a fact of society. Neurodivergent individuals are those whose cognitive profile diverges from an established cognitive norm, a norm that is not an objective statistical fact of human neurological functioning but a standard established and maintained by socio-political processes. In this paper, we describe the socio-political mechanisms that build neurodivergence out of neurodiversity which, inspired by Mihai :395–416., 2018), we call “epistemic and cognitive marginalization”. First, we extend the traditional concept of neurodiversity, which we believe too closely tied to a neuroreductionist conception of cognition, to that of “extended neurodiversity,” thereby viewing neurodiversity through the lens of 4E cognition. Considering that human cognition depends on epistemic resources, both for their construction and their online dynamic expression, we hypothesize that the differential access to epistemic resources in society, a form of epistemic injustice, is an overlooked mechanism that turns neurodiversity into neurodivergence. In doing so, we shed light on a type of epistemic injustice that might be missing from the epistemic injustice literature: cognitive injustices.
Keywords No keywords specified (fix it)
Categories (categorize this paper)
DOI 10.1007/s11229-021-03356-5
Edit this record
Mark as duplicate
Export citation
Find it on Scholar
Request removal from index
Translate to english
Revision history

Download options

PhilArchive copy

Upload a copy of this paper     Check publisher's policy     Papers currently archived: 63,274
External links

Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
Through your library

References found in this work BETA

No references found.

Add more references

Citations of this work BETA

No citations found.

Add more citations

Similar books and articles

Epistemic Consequentialism.Philip Percival - 2002 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 76 (1):121-151.
Epistemic Consequentialism: Philip Percival.P. R. Percival - 2002 - Supplement to the Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 76 (1):121-151.
Neurodiversity, Ethics and Medicine.Bernard Baertschi - 2018 - Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy 59:9-13.
Book Review: African Philosophy and the Epistemic Marginalization of Women. [REVIEW]Chukwuemeka I. Awugosi - 2018 - Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions 7 (3):109-117.
The Myth of the Mental (Illness).Sarah Vincent - 2014 - In David Boersema (ed.), Dimensions of Moral Agency. Cambridge Scholars. pp. 30-37.
Value of Cognitive Diversity in Science.Samuli Pöyhönen - 2017 - Synthese 194 (11):4519-4540.
Epistemic Reasons I: Normativity.Kurt Sylvan - 2016 - Philosophy Compass 11 (7):364-376.
Epistemic Anxiety, Adaptive Cognition, and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.Juliette Vazard - 2018 - Discipline Filosofiche 2 (Philosophical Perspectives on Af):137-158.
Concepts, Intuitions and Epistemic Norms.Murray Clarke - 2010 - Logos and Episteme (2):269-286.


Added to PP index

Total views
10 ( #872,065 of 2,448,633 )

Recent downloads (6 months)
10 ( #64,349 of 2,448,633 )

How can I increase my downloads?


My notes