The Role of Randomization in Inference

PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1982:431 - 446 (1982)
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Abstract

It is argued that randomization has no role to play in the design or analysis of an experiment. If a Bayesian approach is adopted this conclusion is easily demonstrated. Outside that approach two principles, of conditionality and similarity, lead, via the likelihood principle, to the same conclusion. In the case of design, however, it is important to avoid confounding the effect of interest with an unexpected factor and this consideration leads to a principle of haphazardness that is clearly related to, but not identical with, randomization. The role of exchangeability is discussed.

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