Analysis 80 (3):474-486 (2020)

The KK principle states that knowing entails knowing that one knows. This historically popular principle has fallen out of favour among many contemporary philosophers in light of putative counterexamples. Recently, some have defended more palatable versions of KK by weakening the principle. These revisions remain faithful to their predecessor in spirit while escaping crucial objections. This paper examines the prospects of such a strategy. It is argued that revisions of the original principle can be captured by a generalized knowledge iteration principle, Weak-KK, which states that knowing entails the possibility of knowing that one knows. But Weak-KK is vulnerable to an unknowability result and therefore must be rejected. The arguments here suggest that retreating to weaker iteration principles is not an option for the KK enthusiast.
Keywords No keywords specified (fix it)
Categories No categories specified
(categorize this paper)
DOI 10.1093/analys/anz072
Edit this record
Mark as duplicate
Export citation
Find it on Scholar
Request removal from index
Revision history

Download options

PhilArchive copy

Upload a copy of this paper     Check publisher's policy     Papers currently archived: 59,735
External links

Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
Through your library

References found in this work BETA

Knowledge and its Limits.Timothy Williamson - 2000 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 64 (1):200-201.
Contextualism, Skepticism, and the Structure of Reasons.Stewart Cohen - 1999 - Philosophical Perspectives 13:57-89.
Moore's Paradox and the Accessibility of Justification.Declan Smithies - 2012 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 85 (2):273-300.
Philosophical Explanations.Robert Nozick - 1981 - Philosophy 58 (223):118-121.

View all 33 references / Add more references

Citations of this work BETA

No citations found.

Add more citations

Similar books and articles

Lewis on Iterated Knowledge.Bernhard Salow - 2016 - Philosophical Studies 173 (6):1571-1590.
Epistemic and Methodological Iteration in Scientific Research.Kevin C. Elliott - 2012 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 43 (2):376-382.
Self-Knowledge and the KK Principle.Conor McHugh - 2010 - Synthese 173 (3):231-257.
How to Win Some Simple Iteration Games.Alessandro Andretta & John Steel - 1997 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 83 (2):103-164.
Not Every Truth Can Be Known (at Least, Not All at Once).Greg Restall - 2009 - In Joe Salerno (ed.), New Essays on the Knowability Paradox. Oxford University Press. pp. 339--354.
Knowing-That, Knowing-How, or Knowing-To?Yong Huang - 2017 - Journal of Philosophical Research 42:65-94.
Truth, Demonstration and Knowledge. A Classical Solution to the Paradox of Knowability.Elia Zardini - 2015 - Theoria : An International Journal for Theory, History and Fundations of Science 30 (3):365-392.
The Self-Knowledge Gambit.Berislav Marušić - 2013 - Synthese 190 (12):1977-1999.
Fitch's Paradox and Level-Bridging Principles.Weng Kin San - 2020 - Journal of Philosophy 117 (1):5-29.


Added to PP index

Total views
15 ( #660,041 of 2,432,437 )

Recent downloads (6 months)
2 ( #295,116 of 2,432,437 )

How can I increase my downloads?


My notes