Abstract
The essay is a critical revision of various of Marx’s approaches in his analysis of capitalism in “Das Kapital”. One can distinguish immanent, normative critiques from transcendental and objectivistic ones. The review of the normative standards used in each case leads to the questions of how Marx determined and used the relationships of justice and law and the capitalist mode of production. Orthodox Marxist views claim that Marx did not criticise capital as unjust and understood the law of capital only as private law that stabilised domination. Against this, it is shown that he certainly bases his “critical presentation” on an constitutional concept of private law and public law. Thus the “popular prejudice” of “human equality”, defined by Marx as an epochal and systematic condition of the capitalist exchange of goods, becomes apparent as a covert reference to the historical, public-law declarations of human rights. And in the chapter “Struggle for the length of the working day” Marx presents the decisions of this dispute between “equal rights” first and foremost in the systematic historical actions of the constitutional powers. At the same time, however, he attempts to ironise and defame this public-law and deliberative, democratic dispute and then to misinterpret it as a violent “civil war”. Because Marx in his further presentation ignores this legal-democratic dispute, including a potential human-rights critique and future regulation of capitalism, focussing instead on objectivist concepts of history and development, he can only insufficiently grasp the still challenging relationship between democracy and capitalism.
Keywords C. Menke  Fraser  Marx  constitutional powers  critiques of capitalism  democracy and capitalism  human rights  justice  law  struggle for the length of the working day
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DOI 10.1515/dzph-2018-0033
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Von der Entfremdung zur Entwürdigung.Georg Lohmann - 2018 - In Rüdiger Dannemann, Henry W. Pickford & Hans-Ernst Schiller (eds.), Der Aufrechte Gang Im Windschiefen Kapitalismus: Modelle Kritischen Denkens. Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden. pp. 3-35.

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