Social Science Information 35 (2):257-267 (1996)

Abstract
Observing is a paradoxical operation: a duality as unity, and a distinction between distinguishing and indicating, that is, a distinction that is repeated in itself. One can speak of scientific observation only if such an operation of distinguishing- indication is achieved through concepts. If one observes observation one cannot avoid observing the paradox. When a second-order observer wants to know how the observed observer observes, it has to observe how the observed observer deals with its own paradox, how it de-paradoxizes the paradox. Even scientific communication is an actualization of the paradox of observation, and therefore it is in principle incapable of dealing with logic. A theory of scientific observation should then be concerned with how science has nevertheless managed. The point comes to be: who observes with the aid of the concept of communication, and how does it observe?
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DOI 10.1177/053901896035002005
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Beiträge zur Grundlegung einer operationsfähigen Dialektik.Gotthard Günther - 1983 - Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 37 (1):155-158.

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