Interpretation 7 (4):SL19-SL36 (2019)

Abstract
Over the past eight years, north-central Oklahoma has experienced a significant increase in seismicity. Although the disposal of large volumes of wastewater into the Arbuckle Group basement system has been statistically correlated to this increased seismicity, our understanding of the actual mechanisms involved is somewhat superficial. To address this shortcoming, we initiated an integrated study to characterize and model the Arbuckle-basement system to increase our understanding of the subsurface dynamics during the wastewater-disposal process. We constructed a 3D geologic model that integrates 3D seismic data, well logs, core measurements, and injection data. Poststack-data conditioning and seismic attributes provided images of faults and the rugose top of the basement, whereas a modified-Hall analysis provided insights into the injection behavior of the wells. Using a Pareto-based history-matching technique, we calibrated the 3D models using the injection rate and pressure data. The history-matching process showed the dominant parameters to be formation-water properties, permeability, porosity, and horizontal anisotropy of the Arbuckle Group. Based on the pressure buildup responses from the calibrated models, we identified sealing and conductive characteristics of the key faults. Our analysis indicates the average porosity and permeability of Arbuckle Group to be approximately 7% and 10 mD, respectively. The simulation models also showed pockets of nonuniform and large pressure buildups in these formations, indicating that faults play an important role in fluid movement within the Arbuckle Group basement system. As one of the first integrated investigations conducted to understand the potential hydraulic coupling between the Arbuckle Group and the underlying basement, we evaluate the need for improved data recording and additional data collection. In particular, we recommend that operators wishing to pursue this type of analysis record their injection data on a daily rather than on an averaged basis. A more quantitative estimation of reservoir properties requires the acquisition of P-wave and dipole sonic logs in addition to the commonly acquired triple-combo logs. Finally, to better quantify flow units with the disposal reservoir, we recommend that operators acquire sufficient core to characterize the reservoir heterogeneity.
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DOI 10.1190/int-2019-0025.1
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