Annals of Science 50 (5):455-481 (1993)

The outbreak of war in 1914 found Britain unprepared for a lengthy conflict. British science and industry were particularly ill-prepared to meet the demands of static warfare. Within two years, however, mobilization had made appreciable strides, and, as Britain's munitions industries moved from crisis to confidence, Britain's chemical industry was transformed by an arsenal of ‘garrison chemists’, with skills either born of necessity or borrowed from overseas. At the same time, Britain's chemical leadership traced a path that led them from voluntarist to corporate methods, from private to public initiatives, and from individual to collective behaviours. This paper suggests four key stages in this mobilization, and hints at the significance of the war for the emergence of new sub-disciplines, for the careers of chemists, for academic-government relations in research, and for the image, status, and international position of British chemistry on the threshold of the postwar world
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DOI 10.1080/00033799300200341
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III.—The Organisation of Thought.A. N. Whitehead - 1917 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 17 (1):58-76.
The Visible College.Gary Wersky - 1978 - Science and Society 54 (4):501-504.

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