Attitude, Inference, Association: On the Propositional Structure of Implicit Bias

Noûs 50 (3):629-658 (2016)
Abstract
The overwhelming majority of those who theorize about implicit biases posit that these biases are caused by some sort of association. However, what exactly this claim amounts to is rarely specified. In this paper, I distinguish between different understandings of association, and I argue that the crucial senses of association for elucidating implicit bias are the cognitive structure and mental process senses. A hypothesis is subsequently derived: if associations really underpin implicit biases, then implicit biases should be modulated by counterconditioning or extinction but should not be modulated by rational argumentation or logical interventions. This hypothesis is false; implicit biases are not predicated on any associative structures or associative processes but instead arise because of unconscious propositionally structured beliefs. I conclude by discussing how the case study of implicit bias illuminates problems with popular dual-process models of cognitive architecture.
Keywords Implicit Bias  Associationism  Cognitive Structure  Belief  Implicit Attitudes  Reasoning  Inference  Unconscious Thought  Racism
Categories (categorize this paper)
DOI 10.1111/nous.12089
Options
 Save to my reading list
Follow the author(s)
Edit this record
My bibliography
Export citation
Find it on Scholar
Mark as duplicate
Request removal from index
Revision history
Download options
Our Archive
External links

Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
Through your library
References found in this work BETA
The Origin of Concepts.Susan Carey - 2009 - Oxford University Press.
Alief and Belief.Tamar Szabó Gendler - 2008 - Journal of Philosophy 105 (10):634-663.
Real Patterns.Daniel C. Dennett - 1991 - Journal of Philosophy 88 (1):27-51.
Dual-Process Theories of Higher Cognition Advancing the Debate.Jonathan Evans & Keith E. Stanovich - 2013 - Perspectives on Psychological Science 8 (3):223-241.

View all 29 references / Add more references

Citations of this work BETA
Thinking is Believing.Eric Mandelbaum - 2014 - Inquiry : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 57 (1):55-96.
Direct Perception and the Predictive Mind.Zoe Drayson - forthcoming - Philosophical Studies.
You Meta Believe It.Neil Levy - forthcoming - European Journal of Philosophy.
Dissolving the Epistemic/Ethical Dilemma Over Implicit Bias.Katherine Puddifoot - 2017 - Philosophical Explorations 20 (sup1):73-93.

View all 19 citations / Add more citations

Similar books and articles
Responsibility for Implicit Bias.Jules Holroyd - 2012 - Journal of Social Philosophy 43 (3):274-306.
The Heterogeneity of Implicit Bias.Jules Holroyd & Joseph Sweetman - forthcoming - In Michael Brownstein & Jennifer Saul (eds.), Implicit Bias and Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
Implicit Bias, Character and Control.Jules Holroyd & Dan Kelly - forthcoming - In Jonathan Webber & Alberto Masala (eds.), From Personality to Virtue.
Attributionism and Moral Responsibility for Implicit Bias.Michael Brownstein - 2016 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 7 (4):765-786.
Accessibilism and the Challenge From Implicit Bias.Katherine Puddifoot - 2015 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 96 (3).
Added to PP index
2012-11-06

Total downloads
1,284 ( #719 of 2,237,285 )

Recent downloads (6 months)
220 ( #997 of 2,237,285 )

How can I increase my downloads?

Monthly downloads
My notes
Sign in to use this feature