Roberto De Andrade Martins
Universidade de São Paulo
This paper studies the history of teleological thought in Antiquity, after Aristotle, analyzing three relevant episodes: the contribution of Theophrastus – a companion and successor of Aristotle; Stoicism, as described by Cicero in his work On the nature of gods; and Galen’s anatomical and physiological works, especially his book On the utility of the parts of the human body. This analysis exhibits the broad diversity of views concerning final causes in Antiquity, all of them widely different from Aristotle’s one, and the strong influence of theological concerns in some of those philosophers – such as the Stoics and Galen.
Keywords teleology  final causes  Theophrastus  Cicero  stoicism  Galen  theology  philosophy of biology  history of biology
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