Authors
Roberto De Andrade Martins
Universidade de São Paulo
Abstract
From Antiquity to the 19th century it was very common to explain natural phenomena (especially biological ones) through final causes. This paper analyses one of the periods of development of this concept, in Antiquity, with special emphasis upon the contributions of Socrates and Plato. They introduced the idea of an intelligent and beneficial god, who plans the structure of the universe and of all beings in the best possible way. This concept was strongly influential in later periods. RESUMO: Da Antiguidade até o século XIX foi muito comum procurar-se entender os fenômenos naturais (especialmente os biológicos) através de causas finais. Este artigo analisa um dos períodos de formação dessas concepções, na Antiguidade, dando especial atenção às contribuições de Sócrates e Platão. Estes introduzem a ideia de uma divindade inteligente e bondosa, que planeja a estrutura do universo e de todos os seres da melhor forma possível. Essa concepção teve grande influência, no período posterior.
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References found in this work BETA

Toward a New Philosophy of Biology: Observations of an Evolutionist.Ernst Mayr - 1988 - Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
.David Lamb (ed.) - 1987 - Croom Helm.
Plato as a Natural Scientist.Geoffrey Ernest Richard Lloyd - 1968 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 88:78-92.

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