Minerva 49 (2):175-190 (2011)

Abstract
In this article, we propose four modifications to the standard Triple Helix innovation model, which consists of the three strands: university, government, industry. First, in view of recent economic, cultural, organizational and ideological changes in many countries, it is now important to introduce a fourth strand to the standard model, namely society. Second, we observe that strands occur in doublets which we refer to as binomials. Examples of doublets include university/society, university/industry, industry/society, etc. Third, the binomials are organized in a hierarchic mode; for example in the university/society binomial, university may be dominant and the society secondary. The hierarchy arrangement proves decisive. Fourth, Helix-driven innovation processes take the form of temporary segmented phases. Using the case study of Dip-Pen nanolithography, we identify four phases where each phase is characterised by specific binomials accompanied by a hierarchy: academic instrument research (university/society); from instrument to tool; company start-up (university/industry); the mature firm and commercialization (industry/society); confirming the societal strand nanofication (society/industry). The government strand operates as a recessive component in phases one and four
Keywords Quadruple Helix  Society  Binomials strands  Hierarchy  Temporal phases  Dip-Pen Nanolithography
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DOI 10.1007/s11024-011-9169-z
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