A comparison of conscious and automatic memory processes for picture and word stimuli: A process dissocation analysis

Consciousness and Cognition 11 (3):423-460 (2002)
Four experiments were conducted to evaluate explanations of picture superiority effects previously found for several tasks. In a process dissociation procedure with word stem completion, picture fragment completion, and category production tasks, conscious and automatic memory processes were compared for studied pictures and words with an independent retrieval model and a generate-source model. The predictions of a transfer appropriate processing account of picture superiority were tested and validated in “process pure” latent measures of conscious and unconscious, or automatic and source, memory processes. Results from both model fits verified that pictures had a conceptual processing advantage over words for all tasks. The effects of perceptual compatibility depended on task type, with pictorial tasks favoring pictures and linguistic tasks favoring words. Results show support for an explanation of the picture superiority effect that involves an interaction of encoding and retrieval processes
Keywords *Consciousness States  *Human Information Storage  *Memory  *Pictorial Stimuli  *Words (Phonetic Units)  Dissociation  Explicit Memory  Linguistics  Recall (Learning)  Word Recognition
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DOI 10.1016/S1053-8100(02)00007-7
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Stanislas Dehaene (2005). Imaging Conscious and Subliminal Word Processing. In Ulrich Mayr, Edward Awh & Steven W. Keele (eds.), Developing Individuality in the Human Brain: A Tribute to Michael I. Posner. American Psychological Association. pp. 65-86.
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