The response to physics and chemistry which characterized mid-nineteenth century physiology took two major directions. One, found most prominently among the German physiologists, developed explanatory models which had as their fundamental assumption the ultimate reducibility of all biological phenomena to the laws of physics and chemistry. The other, characteristic of the French school of physiology, recognized that physics and chemistry provided potent analytical tools for the exploration of physiological activities, but assumed in the construction of explanatory models that the organism involved special levels of organization and that there must, in consequence, be special biological laws.The roots of this argument about concept formation in physiology are explored in the works of Theodor Schwann, Johannes Müller, François Magendie and Claude Bernard among others
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DOI 10.1017/s000708740000220x
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References found in this work BETA

Principes de médecine expérimentale.Claude Bernard, Léon Delhoume & Léon Binet - 1950 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 140:247-250.

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The Artificial Cell, the Semipermeable Membrane, and the Life That Never Was, 1864–1901.Daniel Liu - 2019 - Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences 49 (5):504-555.
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The Cell and Protoplasm as Container, Object, and Substance, 1835–1861.Daniel Liu - 2017 - Journal of the History of Biology 50 (4):889-925.
Speculation in Physics: The Theory and Practice of "Naturphilosophie".Barry Gower - 1973 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 3 (4):301.

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