How Payment For Research Participation Can Be Coercive

American Journal of Bioethics 19 (9):21-31 (2019)

Authors
Joseph Millum
National Institutes of Health
Michael Garnett
Birkbeck College
Abstract
The idea that payment for research participation can be coercive appears widespread among research ethics committee members, researchers, and regulatory bodies. Yet analysis of the concept of coercion by philosophers and bioethicists has mostly concluded that payment does not coerce, because coercion necessarily involves threats, not offers. In this article we aim to resolve this disagreement by distinguishing between two distinct but overlapping concepts of coercion. Consent-undermining coercion marks out certain actions as impermissible and certain agreements as unenforceable. By contrast, coercion as subjection indicates a way in which someone’s interests can be partially set back in virtue of being subject to another’s foreign will. While offers of payment do not normally constitute consent-undermining coercion, they do sometimes constitute coercion as subjection. We offer an analysis of coercion as subjection and propose three possible practical responses to worries about the coerciveness of payment.
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DOI 10.1080/15265161.2019.1630497
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References found in this work BETA

Coercion: The Wrong and the Bad.Michael Garnett - 2018 - Ethics 128 (3):545-573.
Exploitation, Vulnerability, and Social Domination.Nicholas Vrousalis - 2013 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 41 (2):131-157.
Payment for Research Participation: A Coercive Offer?A. Wertheimer & F. G. Miller - 2008 - Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (5):389-392.
A Theory of Wrongful Exploitation.Mikhail Valdman - 2009 - Philosophers' Imprint 9:1-14.
Coercion.Alan Wertheimer - 1989 - Ethics 99 (3):642-644.

View all 22 references / Add more references

Citations of this work BETA

The Coercer’s Role in Coercion.Scott A. Anderson - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (9):39-41.
Research Payment and Its Social Justice Concerns.Jill A. Fisher - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (9):35-36.
A Proposal for Fair Compensation for Research Participants.Emily E. Anderson - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (9):62-64.

View all 14 citations / Add more citations

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