Perspectives on Science 26 (3):293-324 (2018)

David Marshall Miller
Iowa State University
One of the distinctive features of modern science is a commitment to empiricism—a fundamental expectation that theoretical hypotheses will survive encounters with observations. Those that comport with the theory's explanations and predictions confirm the theory. Anomalous observations that do not fit theoretical expectations disconfirm it. Moreover, experiments can be contrived to generate observations that might serve to confirm or disconfirm a theory. Philosophers of science may disagree as to how exactly all of this is supposed to work, but the basic empiricist expectation almost goes without saying. To deny it is to rule one's self out of the bounds of the scientificenterprise.Strange as it might seem to modern...
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DOI 10.1162/posc_a_00276
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