Philosophical Magazine 83 (6):727-743 (2003)

Authors
Barteld Kooi
University of Groningen
Abstract
This paper concentrates on the possible segregation of indium and gallium and competitive segregation of gallium and indium at atomically flat parallel {111}-oriented Cu-MnO interfaces. The segregation of gallium at Cu-MnO interfaces after introduction of gallium in the copper matrix of internally oxidized Cu-1 at.% Mn could be hardly detected with energy-dispersive spectrometry in a field emission gun transmission electron microscope. After a heat treatment to dissolve indium in the copper matrix, gallium has a weak tendency to segregate, that is 2.5 at.% Ga per monolayer at the interface compared with 2 at.% in the copper matrix. The striking result is that this gallium segregation is observable because it does not occur at the metal side of the interface but in the first two monolayers at the oxide side. Using the same heat treatment as for introducing indium in the sample, but without indium present, gallium segregates strongly at the oxide side of the Cu-MnO interface with a concentration of about 14.3 at.% in each monolayer of the two. In contrast, the presence of gallium has no influence on the segregation of indium towards Cu-MnO interfaces, because the outermost monolayer at the metal side of the interface contains 17.6 at.% In, that is similar to previously found results. This leads to the intriguing conclusions, firstly, that, in contrast with antimony and indium, gallium segregates at the oxide side of the interface and, secondly, that the presence of indium strongly hampers gallium segregation. The results from analytical transmission electron microscopy on gallium segregation are supported by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy observations
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DOI 10.1080/0141861021000049238
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