The Placebo Effect: How the Subconscious Fits in

Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 55 (1):43-58 (2012)
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Abstract

A much-cited definition of placebo is from Shapiro and Shapiro :"any therapy that is intentionally or knowingly used for its nonspecific, psychological, or psychophysiological, therapeutic effect, or that is used for a presumed specific therapeutic effect on a patient, symptom, or illness but is without specific activity for the condition being treated". What nonspecific means and how it relates to the psyche has been written about extensively yet inconclusively. In the end, the term nonspecific doesn't say anything about the crux of the matter.Talking about placebo, one first has to distinguish between " placebo effect proper" and "perceived placebo effect." The.

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