Journal of the History of Biology 38 (3):495-533 (2005)

Abstract
Place, practice and status have played significant and interacting roles in the complex history of primatology during the early to mid-twentieth century. This paper demonstrates that, within the emerging discipline of primatology, the field was understood as an essential supplement to laboratory work. Founders argued that only in the field could primates be studied in interaction with their natural social group and environment. Such field studies of primate behavior required the development of existing and new field techniques. The practices and sites developed by American primatologist Clarence Ray Carpenter were used to demonstrate that scientific standards could be successfully applied to the study of primates in the field. In an environment in which many field biologists fought for higher scientific status, Carpenter gradually adopted increasingly interventionist techniques. These techniques raised epistemological problems for studies whose value rested on the naturalness of the behaviors observed. Thus, issues of status shaped field practices and subsequently altered Carpenter's criteria for what constituted natural primate behavior.
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DOI 10.1007/s10739-005-0553-0
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References found in this work BETA

The great apes. A study of anthropoïd life.R. M. Yerkes & A. W. Yerkes - 1932 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 114:464-466.
Ethology, Natural History, the Life Sciences, and the Problem of Place.Richard W. Burkhardt - 1999 - Journal of the History of Biology 32 (3):489 - 508.
Reel Nature: America's Romance with Wildlife on Film.Gregg Mitman - 2000 - Journal of the History of Biology 33 (2):385-387.

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Citations of this work BETA

A Place That Answers Questions: Primatological Field Sites and the Making of Authentic Observations.Amanda Rees - 2006 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 37 (2):311-333.
Naming the Ethological Subject.Etienne S. Benson - 2016 - Science in Context 29 (1):107-128.

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