Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 6 (1):46-60 (2012)

In this paper I establish a normative limit of spectator interaction. I argue that attempts by non-participants (e.g. spectators) to affect the outcome of a contest, whether intended or merely foreseeable, are unsporting and ought to be discouraged because they undermine fairness, which is a fundamental premise of ideal competition. Because this is at odds with the participatory ethos of contemporary sports fanaticism (e.g. ?12th man? campaigns, visual distractions by spectators, etcetera) I anticipate several potential objections. I refute concerns that my thesis is empirically dubious; that it is impractical; that it is subordinate to financial considerations; that it is nullified by participant acquiescence; and that it is subordinate to spectator interests
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DOI 10.1080/17511321.2011.598465
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References found in this work BETA

Intentional Rules Violations—One More Time.Warren P. Fraleigh - 2003 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 30 (2):166-176.
Cheating and Fair Play in Sport.Oliver Leaman & W. Morgan - 2007 - In William J. Morgan (ed.), Ethics in Sport. Human Kinetics. pp. 201--7.
Trash Talking, Respect for Opponents and Good Competition.Nicholas Dixon - 2007 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 1 (1):96 – 106.
Justice in Sport.Sigmund Loland - 2007 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 1 (1):78 – 95.

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