David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jonathan Jenkins Ichikawa
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104 (30):12335-12242 (2007)
Recent studies of developmental biology have shown that the genes controlling phenotypic characters expressed in the early stage of development are highly conserved and that recent evolutionary changes have occurred primarily in the characters expressed in later stages of development. Even the genes controlling the latter characters are generally conserved, but there is a large component of neutral or nearly neutral genetic variation within and between closely related species. Phenotypic evolution occurs primarily by mutation of genes that interact with one another in the developmental process. The enormous amount of phenotypic diversity among different phyla or classes of organisms is a product of accumulation of novel mutations and their conservation that have facilitated adaptation to different environments. Novel mutations may be incorporated into the genome by natural selection (elimination of preexisting genotypes) or by random processes such as genetic and genomic drift. However, once the mutations are incorporated into the genome, they may generate developmental constraints that will affect the future direction of phenotypic evolution. It appears that the driving force of phenotypic evolution is mutation, and natural selection is of secondary importance.
|Keywords||evolutionary theory new mutations selection|
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Thomas Ferenci & Ram Maharjan (2015). Mutational Heterogeneity: A Key Ingredient of Bet-Hedging and Evolutionary Divergence? Bioessays 37 (2):123-130.
Henry H. Q. Heng (2009). The Genome‐Centric Concept: Resynthesis of Evolutionary Theory. Bioessays 31 (5):512-525.
Koodali T. Nishant, Nadia D. Singh & Eric Alani (2009). Genomic Mutation Rates: What High‐Throughput Methods Can Tell Us. Bioessays 31 (9):912-920.
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