Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1920-1929 (2011)

Abstract
In response to concerns with existing procedures for measuring strategic control over implicit knowledge in artificial grammar learning , we introduce a more stringent measurement procedure. After two separate training blocks which each consisted of letter strings derived from a different grammar, participants either judged the grammaticality of novel letter strings with respect to only one of these two grammars , or had the target grammar varying randomly from trial to trial which required a higher degree of conscious flexible control. Random variation in the colour and font of letters was introduced to disguise the nature of the rule and reduce explicit learning. Strategic control was observed both in the pure-block and mixed-block conditions, and even among participants who did not realise the rule was based on letter identity. This indicated detailed strategic control in the absence of explicit learning
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DOI 10.1016/j.concog.2011.07.008
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Implicit Learning of Artificial Grammars.Arthur S. Reber - 1967 - Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 6:855-863.

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