Emergent individuals

Philosophical Quarterly 53 (213):540-555 (2003)
We explain the thesis that human mental states are ontologically emergent aspects of a fundamentally biological organism. We then explore the consequences of this thesis for the identity of a human person over time. As these consequences are not obviously independent of one's general ontology of objects and their properties, we consider four such accounts: transcendent universals, kind-Aristotelianism, immanent universals, and tropes. We suggest there are reasons for emergentists to favor the latter two accounts. We then argue that within such ontologies, emergentism about properties pushes one to the stronger claim that there are emergent individuals, though not individuals which are dual to person's bodies—substance emergentism, but not substance dualism.
Keywords Emergentism  Individual  Metaphysics  Natural Kinds  Trope  Universal
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DOI 10.1111/1467-9213.00330
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Andrew M. Bailey (2015). Animalism. Philosophy Compass 10 (12):867-883.
Patrick Toner (2008). Emergent Substance. Philosophical Studies 141 (3):281 - 297.
D. Heard (2006). A New Problem for Ontological Emergence. Philosophical Quarterly 56 (222):55-62.

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