Philosophy and Technology 28 (3):407-425 (2015)

The use of cyber force can be as severe and disruptive as traditional armed attacks are. Cyber attacks may neither provoke physical injuries nor cause property damages and still, they can affect essential functions of today’s societies, such as governmental services, business processes or communication systems that progressively depend on information as a vital resource. Whereas several scholars claim that an international treaty, much as new forms of international cooperation, are necessary, a further challenge should be stressed: authors of cyber attacks can be non-state actors, and identifying the party responsible for such a use of force, whether non-state actors or national sovereign states, is often impossible. Accordingly, several programmes on online security and national defence have been developed by sovereign states to tackle this menace and yet, the endurance of Western democracies and their aim to protect basic rights have already been tested by such programmes over the past years. The new scenarios of cyber force do not only concern the field of international law, since they may represent the main threat in the fields of national and constitutional law as well
Keywords Cyber attack  Force  Information ethics  International humanitarian law  Laws of war  Sovereignty
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DOI 10.1007/s13347-014-0177-4
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The Ethics of Information.Luciano Floridi - 2013 - Oxford University Press UK.
The Pure Theory of Law.Hans Kelsen & Max Knight - 1968 - Philosophical Quarterly 18 (73):377-377.

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