Journal of Business Ethics 119 (2):245-264 (2014)

Abstract
Using survey responses from 400 fashion companies in Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Iceland, we examine the diversity of strategic responses to institutional pressures for corporate social responsibility within the Nordic fashion industry. We also develop and test a new model of strategic responses to institutional pressures that encompasses both resistance and opportunity-seeking behaviour. Our results suggest that it is inconsistent pressures within, rather than between, stakeholder groups that shape strategic responses to CSR pressures and that increasing pressures stimulates opportunity-seeking at the expense of compliance.
Keywords Corporate social responsibility  Sustainability  Institutional pressures  Strategic responses
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DOI 10.1007/s10551-013-1630-5
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