The economy of nature: the structure of evolution in Linnaeus, Darwin, and the modern synthesis

Authors
Charles H. Pence
Université Catholique de Louvain
Daniel G. Swaim
University of Pennsylvania
Abstract
We argue that the economy of nature constitutes an invocation of structure in the biological sciences, one largely missed by philosophers of biology despite the turn in recent years toward structural explanations throughout the philosophy of science. We trace a portion of the history of this concept, beginning with the theologically and economically grounded work of Linnaeus, moving through Darwin’s adaptation of the economy of nature and its reconstitution in genetic terms during the first decades of the Modern Synthesis. What this historical case study reveals, we argue, is a window into the shifting landscape of the explanatory and ontic uses of structural concepts. In Linnaeus, the economy of nature has both ontic and explanatory import; in Darwin the ontic and explanatory aspects start to come apart ; and finally, in the Modern Synthesis, the economy of nature is replaced by the conceptual toolkit of population genetics, the structural elements of which are nearly entirely explanatory. Having traced a historical trajectory of structural concepts that moves from an ontic formulation to an increasingly explanatory one, we conclude by outlining some insights for structural realism.
Keywords economy of nature  Carl Linnaeus  Charles Darwin  Sewall Wright  Ernst Mayr  ecology  Modern Synthesis  population genetics  structural realism
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Reprint years 2017, 2018
DOI 10.1007/s13194-017-0194-0
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What is Structural Realism?James Ladyman - 1998 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 29 (3):409-424.

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