Journal of Semantics 6 (1):369-385 (1988)

Josef Perner
University of Salzburg
Alan Garnham
University of Sussex
We present a finite psychological decision procedure for determining whether a situation S provides a participant a in that situation with grounds G for assuming that a and b, the other participant, mutually know some proposition p indicated by S. Our criterion derives from analytic criteria proposed by Lewis (1969) and Schiffer (1972). We discuss how our criterion applies in a series of test examples, and compare it with Clark and Marshall's (1981) triple copresence heuristic. We argue that triple copresence is empirically incorrect. It is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for mutuality, and it fails on a wide variety of examples. We also consider Sperber and Wilson's (1986) recent claim that the concept of mutual knowledge should be replaced by those of mutual manifestness and mutual cognitive environments, and argue that this move fails to solve the problem of mutuality. Finally we discuss how community membership produces mutuality. We argue that mutuality can only be established if certain rules of common sense reasoning can be assumed, and discuss the sense in which these rules must be ‘mutually’ known
Keywords No keywords specified (fix it)
Categories (categorize this paper)
DOI 10.1093/jos/6.1.369
Edit this record
Mark as duplicate
Export citation
Find it on Scholar
Request removal from index
Revision history

Download options

PhilArchive copy

Upload a copy of this paper     Check publisher's policy     Papers currently archived: 59,735
Through your library

References found in this work BETA

No references found.

Add more references

Citations of this work BETA

Sociogenesis, Coordination and Mutualism.Ivan Leudar - 1991 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 21 (2):197–220.

Add more citations

Similar books and articles

Mutuality and Normative Ethics.Edward George Bozzo - 1970 - Thought: Fordham University Quarterly 45 (4):521-541.
The Ethics of Sexual Objectification: Autonomy and Consent.Patricia Marino - 2008 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 51 (4):345 – 364.
Cognitive Psychology In Question.Alan Costall (ed.) - 1987 - St Martin's Press.
Mutuality.Richard Hart - 1986 - The Personalist Forum 2 (1):65-67.
In Defence of Mutuality.Thomas Clarke - 1998 - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility 7 (2):97–102.
Seeking Desire: Reflections on Blackburn's Lust.Patricia Marino - 2006 - Social Philosophy Today 22:219-230.
Asymmetry and Mutuality: Habermas and Levinas.Robert Gibbs - 1997 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 23 (6):51-63.


Added to PP index

Total views
14 ( #693,346 of 2,432,597 )

Recent downloads (6 months)
1 ( #465,136 of 2,432,597 )

How can I increase my downloads?


My notes