On the definition of equilibrium

Abstract
Boltzmann’s approach to statistical mechanics is widely believed to be conceptually superior to Gibbs’ formulation. However, the microcanonical distribution often fails to behave as expected: The ergodicity of the motion relative to it can rarely be established for realistic systems; worse, it can often be proved to fail. Also, the approach involves idealizations that have little physical basis. Here we take Khinchin’s advice and propose a de…nition of equilibrium that is more realistic: The de…nition re‡ects the fact that the system is made of a great number of particles, and implies that all measurable macroscopic observables have steady values.
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DOI 10.1016/j.shpsb.2006.03.001
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Local Fluctuations and Local Observers in Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics.Itamar Pitowsky - 2001 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 32 (4):595-607.

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