In Katy Gray Brown & David Boersema (eds.), Spiritual and Political Dimensions of Nonviolence and Peace. Amsterdam: Rodopi. pp. 75-101 (2006)

Gail Presbey
University of Detroit Mercy
Soon after taking power, three leaders of nonviolent African independence movements, Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana, Julius Nyerere of Tanzania, and Kenneth Kaunda of Zambia immediately turned to violent means to suppress internal opposition. The paper examines the reasons for the success of their Gandhian nonviolent tactics in ousting British colonial governments and argues that these new heads of state lost confidence in nonviolence due to a mixture of self-serving expediency, a lack of understanding of nonviolence's many different forms, and the constraints of inheriting a state already dependent on the use of force.
Keywords Nonviolence  African liberation  Kwame Nkrumah  Julius Nyerere  Kenneth Kaunda
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