Subjects perceived touch sensations as arising from a table (or a rubber hand) when both the table (or the rubber hand) and their own real hand were repeatedly tapped and stroked in synchrony with the real hand hidden from view. If the table or rubber hand was then ‘injured’, subjects displayed a strong skin conductance response (SCR) even though nothing was done to the real hand. Sensations could even be projected to anatomically impossible locations. The illusion was much less vivid, as indicated by subjective reports and SCR, if the real hand was simultaneously visible during stroking, or if the real hand was hidden but touched asynchronously. The fact that the illusion could be significantly diminished when the real hand was simultaneously visible suggests that the illusion and associated SCRs were due to perceptual assimilation of the table (or rubber hand) into one’s body image rather than associative conditioning. These experiments demonstrate the malleability of body image and the brain’s remarkable capacity for detecting statistical correlations in the sensory input.
Keywords No keywords specified (fix it)
Categories (categorize this paper)
Edit this record
Mark as duplicate
Export citation
Find it on Scholar
Request removal from index
Translate to english
Revision history

Download options

Our Archive

Upload a copy of this paper     Check publisher's policy     Papers currently archived: 50,308
External links

Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
Through your library

References found in this work BETA

Synaesthesia in Phantom Limbs Induced with Mirrors.Vilayanur S. Ramachandran & Diane Rogers-Ramachandran - 1996 - Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 263:377-386.
Phantom Limbs, Body Image, and Neural Plasticity.William Hirstein, V. S. Ramachandran & Diane Rogers-Ramachandran - 1998 - International Brain Research Organization News 26 (1):10-21.

Add more references

Citations of this work BETA

Interoceptive Inference, Emotion, and the Embodied Self.Anil K. Seth - 2013 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 17 (11):565-573.
Full-Body Illusions and Minimal Phenomenal Selfhood.Olaf Blanke & Thomas Metzinger - 2009 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 13 (1):7-13.

View all 48 citations / Add more citations

Similar books and articles

Toward a Cognitive Model of the Sense of Embodiment in a (Rubber) Hand.Glenn Carruthers - 2013 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 20 (3-4):3 - 4.
A Self for the Body.Frédérique de Vignemont - 2011 - Metaphilosophy 42 (3):230-247.
A Strange Hand: On Self-Recognition and Recognition of Another.Jenny Slatman - 2009 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 8 (3):321-342.
Empirical Thought Experiments: A Trascendental-Operational View.Buzzoni Marco - 2010 - Epistemologia. An Italian Journal for the Philosophy of Science 33:05-26.


Added to PP index

Total views
55 ( #167,478 of 2,326,001 )

Recent downloads (6 months)
1 ( #658,522 of 2,326,001 )

How can I increase my downloads?


My notes