La creación del espacio trágico en la obra de Gabriel García Márquez: una lectura sofoclea

Synthesis (la Plata) 19:43-61 (2012)

Abstract
La influencia de Sófocles y, concretamente, de las tragedias tebanas en la obra de García Márquez se manifiesta a niveles diversos: en la construcción de la trama, en la elaboración del personaje tiránico, en los temas de la violencia y el destino y, por supuesto, en el tratamiento del tiempo y del espacio. En este artículo se analiza la creación del espacio en García Márquez a través de dos elementos contrapuestos que provienen de su lectura de la tragedia sofoclea: el genos, símbolo de un espacio cerrado y ligado a un tiempo "redondo", el espacio del relato, y la polis, un lugar abierto y lejano, donde se produce la Historia con mayúsculas. Esta dicotomía será observada en distintas obras de García Márquez, pero especialmente en Edipo Alcalde. El conflicto trágico de la discordia civil se refleja, así pues, en la construcción de un espacio único, claustrofóbico y corrompido The influence of Sophocles, particularly of his Theban tragedies, on García Márquez's work can be perceived at several different levels: in the construction of the plot, in the conception of the Tyrant character, in the violence and fate themes, and of course in the treatment of time and space. The focus of this paper lies on the construction of space in García Márquez's work through two opposed elements originating in his reading of Sophoclean tragedy: the genos, symbolic of a closed space, linked to a "round" time, which is the space of the narration; and the polis, an open, remote space, in which the time of History unfolds. This dichotomy is analyzed in several works by García Márquez, with special attention paid to Edipo alcalde. Thus, the tragic conflict of civil discord finds its reflection in a single, claustrophobic, and corrupted space
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