Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 24 (3):233--259 (2003)

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Abstract
This essay analyzesexploitation in biomedical research in terms ofthree basic elements: harm, disrespect, orinjustice. There are also degrees ofexploitation, ranging from highly exploitationto minimally exploitation. Althoughexploitation is prima facie wrongful,some exploitative research studies are morallyjustified, all things considered. The reasonan exploitative study can still be ethical isthat other moral considerations, such as theautonomy of the research subject or the socialbenefits of research, may sometimes justifystudies that are minimally exploitative. Calling a research project exploitative doesnot end the debate about the merits of thestudy but invites one to ask additionalquestions about how the study is exploitative,and whether the study is justifiablenevertheless.
Keywords benefits vs. harms  biomedical research  exploitation  HIV research  justice  respect for persons  vulnerable subjects
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Reprint years 2004
DOI 10.1023/A:1024811830049
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How to Do Research Fairly in an Unjust World.Angela J. Ballantyne - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (6):26-35.

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