Critical Philosophy of Race 7 (2):333 (2019)

Daniel Alejandro Restrepo
The New School (PhD)
The recent nationalist movements in liberal democratic states such as the US, the UK, and Germany have been related to xenophobia. The rise of Trumpism brands Muslims and Mexicans as outsiders, while part of the motivation behind Brexit was animosity towards non-Britons like Poles and Muslims. The question is how are nationalism and xenophobia related. According to Ronald Sundstrom, nationalism shelters xenophobia by creating obstacles that prevent immigrants and refugees from attaining a sense of civic belonging. He uses the metaphor of sheltering to suggest that xenophobia becomes a byproduct of nationalism in the right conditions. I think this is a misunderstanding of the relationship between nationalism and xenophobia. In this essay, I do three things: first, I articulate Sundstrom’s argument explaining how each of the three obstacles works to produce an environment of xenophobia; then I consider what reforms might look like, yet these reforms would no longer leave us with something that we can recognize as nationalism; lastly, I argue that nationalism just is the modern day manifestation of xenophobia and so they are inseparable social phenomena.
Keywords xenophobia, nationalism, political philosophy
Categories (categorize this paper)
DOI 10.5325/critphilrace.7.2.0333
Edit this record
Mark as duplicate
Export citation
Find it on Scholar
Request removal from index
Revision history

Download options

PhilArchive copy

Upload a copy of this paper     Check publisher's policy     Papers currently archived: 61,089
External links

Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
Through your library

References found in this work BETA

No references found.

Add more references

Citations of this work BETA

No citations found.

Add more citations

Similar books and articles

Sheltering Xenophobia.R. R. Sundstrom - 2013 - Critical Philosophy of Race 1 (1):68.
Xenophobia and Racism.David Haekwon Kim & Ronald Sundstrom - 2014 - Critical Philosophy of Race 2 (1).
Mixed-Race Looks.Ronald Sundstrom - 2009 - Contemporary Aesthetics.
Frederick Douglass.Ronald Sundstrom - forthcoming - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
"Racial" Nominalism.Ronald R. Sundstrom - 2002 - Journal of Social Philosophy 33 (2):193–210.
Frederick Douglass’s Longing for the End of Race.Ronald Sundstrom - 2005 - Philosophia Africana 8 (2):143-170.
Introduction.Paul C. Taylor & Ronald Robles Sundstrom - 2010 - Journal of Social Philosophy 41 (3):237-243.
Burns, Eminescu, and Whitman: Romantic Nationalism or Xenophobia?Liliana Zancu - 1993 - History of European Ideas 16 (1-3):351-357.
A Critique of Nationalism.Natalija Micunovic - 1996 - Dissertation, Purdue University
Xenophobia and Kantian Rationalism.Adrian M. S. Piper - 1993 - Philosophical Forum 24 (1-3):188-232.


Added to PP index

Total views
21 ( #505,726 of 2,440,150 )

Recent downloads (6 months)
1 ( #432,124 of 2,440,150 )

How can I increase my downloads?


My notes