Synthese 197 (4):1467-1486 (2020)

Alexander Gebharter
Ludwig Maximilians Universität, München
Cartwright (Synthese 121(1/2):3–27, 1999a; The dappled world, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999b) attacked the view that causal relations conform to the Markov condition by providing a counterexample in which a common cause does not screen off its effects: the prominent chemical factory. In this paper we suggest a new way to handle counterexamples to Markov causation such as the chemical factory. We argue that Cartwright’s as well as similar scenarios feature a certain kind of non-causal dependence that kicks in once the common cause occurs. We then develop a representation of this specific kind of non-causal dependence that allows for modeling the problematic scenarios in such a way that the Markov condition is not violated anymore.
Keywords Markov condition  causation  causal Bayes nets  screening off  Cartwright
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Reprint years 2020
DOI 10.1007/s11229-018-02014-7
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