Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 58 (3):465 - 495 (2002)

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O autor do artigo sugere, provocadoramente, que a visão oficial do Tractatus Logico--Philosophicus, de acordo com a qual a filosofia ai apresentada é atomista e reducionista, deve ser completamente repensada, e que esta é uma condição básica para avaliar hoje em dia o impacto desse livro na filosofia analitica contemporânea. Especialmente, defende que o Tractatus, tal como a filosofia de Russell depois do comeqo dos anos vinte, foi essencialmente holista. Desteponto de vista, argumenta que na "Introdução" ao Tractatus, tal como noutros trabalhos e livros da época, a característica principal dafilosofia de Russell era a sua firme oposição a um holismo radical de tipo logico-estrutural da parte de Wittgenstein, e a defesa do que poderiamos chamar, na esteira de W. v. O. Quine, um "holismo semãntico parcial". A verdade é que a tese segundo a qual a significação resulta do uso da linguagem, ou a tese de acordo com a qual a "linguagem esta em ordem, tal como é", foram emprimeiro lugar, independentemente de Wittgenstein, ideias doproprio Russell. Tudo isto significa que, contrariamente à visão oficial, não podemos aceitar a perspectiva de que a novidade e originalidade do Tractatus de Wittgenstein deveria implicar, indirectamente pelo menos, uma desvalorização dafilosofia de Russell. /// The author of the article suggests, provocatively, that the official view on Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, according to which that book is atomist and reductionist, must be reconsidered, and that this is a basic condition to evaluate today its impact on contemporary analytic philosophy. Especially, he holds that the Tractatus, like Russell's philosophy after the early twenties, was essentially holistic. From this point of view, he argues that in the "Introduction" to the Tractatus, as in other papers and books of the time, the main point of Russell's philosophy was its firm opposition to a radical logico-structural holism on the part of Wittgenstein, as well as the defense of what one might call, after W. v. O. Quine, "a partial semantic holism". The fact is that the thesis according to which meaning results from the use of language, or the thesis according to which "language is in order, as it is", were Russell's ideas in the first place which he reached independently of Wittgenstein. All this means that, contrary to the official reading, we cannot accept the view according to which the newness and originality of Wittgenstein's Tractatus should imply, indirectly at least, a devaluation of Russell's philosophy.
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