Biological Theory 7 (2):162-169 (2013)

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Abstract
This paper takes a hierarchical approach to the question whether species are individuals or natural kinds. The thesis defended here is that species are spatiotemporally located complex wholes (individuals), that are composed of (i.e., include) causally interdependent parts, which collectively also instantiate a homeostatic property cluster (HPC) natural kind. Species may form open or closed genetic systems that are dynamic in nature, that have fuzzy boundaries due to the processual nature of speciation, that may have leaky boundaries as is manifest in lateral gene transfer and introgression, that may be of multiple origins through hybridization, and that may split and merge and split again over time. The identity conditions of species qua individuals will have to be anchored in their history, rather than in their unique evolutionary origin. Species qua historically conditioned HPC natural kinds requires the kind to be mereologically structured, subject to the part-whole relation rather than the membership relation. This implies that there can be more than one kind of natural kinds
Keywords Enkapsis  Willi Hennig  Individuals  Natural kinds  Species
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DOI 10.1007/s13752-012-0051-5
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References found in this work BETA

Naming and Necessity.Saul Kripke - 1980 - Harvard University Press.
On the Origin of Species.Charles Darwin - 2008 - Oxford University Press.
Naming and Necessity.Saul A. Kripke - 1980 - In Darragh Byrne & Max Kölbel (eds.), Philosophy. Routledge. pp. 431-433.
Animal Species and Evolution.Ernst Mayr - 1963 - Belknap of Harvard University Press.

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