The Reemergence of Spinoza’s Conatus in the Political Sphere

Abstract
Spinoza’s metaphysical concept of striving (conatus) entails that all particular things without exception partake in the similar goal of self-preservation. From this position, he derives psychological principles for humans that account for social behavior in terms of one’s effort to preserve one’s community. His position stands in opposition to common sense descriptions of ‘unselfish’ behaviors such as altruism and Michael Della Rocca’s formulation of “other directed striving.” Spinoza accounts for humans acting in the interest of others via community, without compromising his metaphysics or rigorous commitment to naturalism. His explanations outline a means to act socially that minimizes the threat violent emotions pose to political harmony.
Keywords Spinoza  Social Contract  Political Philosophy  Ethics  Early Modern Philosophy  Michael Della Rocca  Philosophical Psychology  Conatus  Group selection
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